The department of Cancer Genetics, Therapeutics & Ultrastructural Pathology operates the only electron microscope available in Cyprus and provides a spectrum of diagnostic services which are based on two main laboratory disciplines. The first one is based on histopathology and is concerned with the examination of biopsies with the electron microscope. This service provides additional diagnostic histopathological information that is essential for diagnosing a range of diseases. These include neuromuscular, kidney and skin disorders as well as a spectrum of rare diseases and syndromes, such as ciliary disorders, where ultrastructural pathology is essential for accurate diagnosis. The second discipline is based on the application of molecular genetics in cancer which covers two important areas. The first area is for diagnosing predisposition to familial cancer, in individuals who have multiple cases of cancer in the family, such as the breast/ovarian and colorectal cancer syndromes. Several genes that predispose to cancer such as the BRCA1 and BRCA2, are analysed and this is a very important way to diagnose the individuals who are at high risk. More than 40 genes can be currently analysed for familial cancer predisposition, which cover predisposition for a range of common as well as rare cancer syndromes. The second area of application of molecular genetics is in pharmaco-genetics which detects the presence of mutated genes in certain types of cancers. These genes, for example EGFR, are targets for many upcoming therapies in oncology particularly in aggressive types of cancer, such as lung cancer and melanoma.